Steve's Book Reviews

Welcome to Steve’s Book Reviews! The books reviewed here are titles that I have personally read, unless otherwise credited. They represent works that I found intriguing, educational, or that I considered desirable to our clients for various reasons. Reading books is all about intellectual growth-the experience of an author’s profound creativity, the stimulation of curiosity, the internal strengths that result from prolonged reflection-these effects and more come from reading, and we sincerely hope that these reviews will bring readers to a place in which they may decide that greater intimacy with the work could be a good thing. 

The reviewed titles are generally available only in hardback at the time the reviews are posted. When the titles become available in other formats, we promise to update that information.

Head of the Mossad: In Pursuit of a Safe and Secure Israel Cover Image
$29.00
ISBN: 9780268108335
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: University of Notre Dame Press - September 30th, 2020

After service in an IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) special forces unit, author Shabtai Shavit spent 32 years in the Mossad (Israel’s national intelligence agency), serving as its director from 1989 to 1996. Head of the Mossad is a deeply intellectual memoir that, while focusing on the period when he was the director, also delves into Israel’s story from the War of Independence to 2018, when the book was written.

While reflecting on the actions of Israel’s intelligence services, much of the land’s recent history becomes apparent. From the beginning, Israel has encountered great hostility from its Arab neighbors. The details of her struggle to become a Jewish and democratic nation are the subject of this work. 

UNRWA (United Nations Relief and Works Agency) was formed in 1949 to benefit Palestinian refugees. However, according to the author, this agency essentially serves to perpetuate the status of Palestinians as refugees while receiving many millions of dollars annually. Furthermore, the author states that, if the U.S. should request it, Israel would provide irrefutable evidence that UNRWA is operated by Hamas.

A major stumbling block to any durable peace settlement is the Palestinian leadership’s rigidity in the matter of the “right of return”, which means that all Palestinians—regardless of where or when they were born, their nationality or economic status anywhere—are covered under this right. Today, more than five million people are included in this “right of return” to Israel, a number that Israel will likely never agree to.

Among other things, the author suggests that it may be beneficial to create a new nation, perhaps called “Sunnistan” to be the home of many Sunni muslims who lack a nation. This nation would border an independent Kurdistan, Iraq, and Jordan.

Operationally, the Mossad regards terrorism to be devoid of any rules of war, and any test for intent will reveal the certainty of hostility. Such a situation makes post factum response inappropriate, so targeted killings and preemptive strikes become justified.

And while the Mossad is tasked with determining the capabilities and intent of adversaries, as well as preventing hostility, it is worthwhile to understand that the Mossad’s goal of discovering and implementing pathways to peace is perhaps more important.  

It was interesting to learn that, intelligence agencies of various countries regularly maintain communication with one another, even when there is adversity between their nations.

This is a fascinating work that will give readers many insights into the field of intelligence. I am very grateful to Mr. Shavit for his responses to my questions.

32nd Avenue Books: Is the Saudi Initiative of 2002 today any closer to becoming more than a proposal or “a template for negotiations?”

S. Shavit: The  Saudi initiative is still valid and on the table. Since it's inception, and every now and then, the Saudi royal family and their administration remind us and the world that they still are waiting to hear from us. The last such a reminder took place within the framework of the Trump Abraham initiative when the Saudi king conditioned his country's joining the initiative with an Israeli announcement of acceptance of their 2002 proposal.

32nd Avenue Books: Are there any changes you would like to see in the relationship between the Mossad and the CIA?

S. Shavit: The  relationship between the CIA and the Israeli Intelligence community has never been better.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Gifts & Toys

June 16, 2021


T-Minus AI: Humanity's Countdown to Artificial Intelligence and the New Pursuit of Global Power Cover Image
$27.95
ISBN: 9781948836944
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: BenBella Books - August 25th, 2020

 

 

Author Michael Kanaan was the first chairperson for artificial intelligence for the U.S. Air Force and is current director of operations at the Air Force/MIT Artificial Intelligence Accelerator.

T-Minus AI is the story of the evolution of human intelligence, as well as the development of computers. Originally, computers required specific instructions in order to accomplish tasks. But in 2012, algorithms changed so that computers would not require human knowledge to perform tasks; they would instead use data-based learning and pattern recognition to discover the problems to solve. Deep-learning allowed data to become experience to a computer. This is the foundation of AI: computer-driven methods of handling information that perform better and faster than humans can. AI has applications for tasks in all fields.

AGI (artificial general intelligence) refers to the ability of a machine to process or operate as well as a human being. Superintelligence refers to machine ability that is greater than that of a human. Neither of these technologies currently exist, but narrow AI (what we have today) does, and it has abilities that require diligent, serious, and thoughtful planning and policy development in order protect our human rights, dignities, and vision.

Since AI allows new methods of aggregating, controlling, and applying information, the huge differences between democratic and authoritarian nations means that we must be committed to protecting our traditions of freedoms and individual liberties. 

Russia will likely use its effort to advance military applications and cyber disinformation capabilities, whereas China wants to use AI to establish itself as the economic leader of the world. China’s BRI (Belt and Road Initiative) already has at least 140 countries in all continents receiving assistance from China. The author suggests that China’s attempts at spreading its 5G infrastructure to countries that will likely become dependent on it, and possibly insecure due to it, might be compared to Britain’s enactment of the burdensome Stamp Act in 1765, when American colonists were required to use only paper from England.  Neither Russia nor China has any history, need, or desire to consider the rights, dignities, or liberties of its people, or any other people, when choosing how to use AI. China’s AI use today involves facial recognition capacities that provide the Chinese Communist Party the ability to employ intentional bias against Uighurs in Xinjiang, and it plans to eventually have all Chinese people in its “social credit score” system by 2025.

While AI can enhance our lives, our best plans must include putting aside our political divisions as a necessity for common good, lest we forsake the principles in the American Constitution, and widen the risk that we could fall victim to AI policies that abandon our freedoms and rights. Thankfully, various actions taken by both the Obama administration and the Trump administration have established regulations and practices influencing the uses of AI with the aim of protecting our heritage.

I was interested is the author’s  perspectives regarding the conceivable effects AI might have on American values, considering the application of this technology elsewhere. I was also curious of his views on the sort of future we may expect as the interface of quantum computing and AI evolves. We are exceedingly grateful for his responses.

32nd Avenue Books: How do you see the evolution of quantum computing vis-à-vis artificial intelligence?

Michael Kanaan: Quantum computing and artificial intelligence are both transformative technologies and complementary in a technical sense. Quantum computing provides unparalleled processing power which will advance capabilities in the application of machine learning algorithms. At the same time, current day machine learning advances our understanding of the quantum information sciences. Think of it as a virtuous cycle, and perhaps in the future we'll see it in everyday life, but we still have much to discover when it comes to most real-world use cases. But this is an exciting time to be in both fields! 

I'm glad you asked this question because, while not directly addressed in the book, I'm an avid armchair occupier of all things quantum. For the discerning eye, I still wanted to make a nod towards quantum so I opened the acknowledgements with "A universal wave of possibilities underlies all we are and all we do. Our reality only emerges from the energy and involvement of the people with whom we entangle" to describe my gratitude towards those who helped bring this book into existence. I believe those two sentences to be quite accurate in life and science.

32nd Avenue Books: Americans are fortunate to have a history of great respect for their rights and liberties. How would you describe the attributes of the path we must follow in order to preserve that respect?  

Michael Kanaan: The human story is full of transformative technologies and moments, but our collective success or failure depends on being ready for the moment. This means we have to watch out for how we use AI and others use it, but that starts by broadly understanding and recognizing the technology when we see it. This in part was my purpose for writing T-Minus AI.

With that said, I suppose there’s a bit of hopefulness. I’m quite bullish on the opportunities at hand for AI to embody values of respect, equality, inclusiveness, and others that are foundationally centered on the idea of human dignity. But in order to get there, the attributes of the path ahead start with a broadly consistent, shared, and common foundation of the technology -- learning is a lifetime sport for us all. Only then can we bring a level of practicality and pragmatism in order to ensure our uses don't infringe on rights and disenfranchise people, groups, and communities. The brass tacks hard work to achieve that starts now.

The path forward will take different people, from different backgrounds, and with different focuses so that we’re generally aware of the opportunities or compromises we will face in the years ahead. For what it’s worth, progress often precedes peril. Developments that bring improvements for some frequently present risks for others. As long as that reality is in the forefront of our mind then I think we'll be okay and AI can be used to better society as a whole. 

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts

June 6, 2021


Down Range: A Novel (Garrett Kohl) Cover Image
$27.99
ISBN: 9780063066502
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: William Morrow - August 3rd, 2021

For fans of adventure, debut author Taylor Moore’s Down Range will keep your eyes moving. The author’s personal background in intelligence has gifted him with the ability to use a convincing jargon that puts the reader on the scene. 

The hero of this novel, former Green Beret and current DEA agent Garrett Kohl, first appears on an investigation of the drug trade in Afghanistan. He witnesses a massacre of villagers and sees a small boy fleeing the destruction. Although he is in a restricted zone, he simply cannot allow the boy to be killed, so he fires on his pursuers, killing them. This obligates him to connect with a CIA base chief, whose plans have him traveling to the U.S. There, he subsequently winds up tangling with a drug cartel in Texas. Lots of clever plot development, action, and soul. If you like thrillers, don’t miss this one.

Since I think this debut work is well done, I wanted to ask the author a few questions about Down Range. We are grateful for his responses.

32nd Avenue Books: What can you say about the relationship between your background in intelligence and your inspiration for Down Range?

Taylor Moore: My career background had a huge influence on the novel. Obviously, I was very familiar with the military and intelligence world and how it relates to counternarcotics, but much of the inspiration for Down Range came from my experience in the energy sector. Working for an oil and gas exploration company, I came into contact with quite a few interesting people with stories to tell. Some of my sources included individuals who had spent time in federal prison for drug trafficking, which helped me to develop what I think is a fairly unique storyline for the novel. 

32nd Avenue Books :Can you identify other writers who influenced your style?

Taylor Moore: Growing up, I was a big fan of writers like Tom Clancy and Nelson DeMille. I'm also a big fan of Larry McMurtry and Cormac McCarthy, which is probably why my style falls somewhere between traditional thriller and modern western writers.

32nd Avenue Books: What do you think Garrett Kohl plans to do next?

Taylor Moore: As far as Garrett Kohl's plans, you'll have to wait and see. I'm in the process of writing book two and big things are happening right now. I can only tell you that it's going to be exciting. Those who like the action, intensity, and intrigue of Down Range won't be disappointed. And for those who like the character-driven part of the story, we'll pick back up where the first book ended.

Steve Brehm                            

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts

April 7, 2021


Big Vape: The Incendiary Rise of Juul Cover Image
$29.99
ISBN: 9781250777539
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Henry Holt and Co. - May 25th, 2021

 

This is an in-depth history of Juul, the most successful e cigarette ever marketed. It was developed by James Monses and Adam Bowen as a way to get smokers off combustible cigarettes, and thereby avoid the myriad toxins in cigarette smoke. Although it was an improvement, vapers were still addicted to nicotine. Moreover, many began using the devices for THC extracts, often tainted with a vitamin E acetate. Such practices led to EVALI, or “e cigarette vaping related pulmonary illness.” As a result, Juul is now waiting for the FDA decision on its PMTA, or premarket tobacco product application.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts

May 20, 2021


Fragments: The long coming home from Vietnam Cover Image
$12.95
ISBN: 9780985504816
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Wordworthypress LLC - April 13th, 2020

 

 

Bruce K. Berger’s free verse poetry reflects his struggle to heal from his experiences in the Viet Nam war. The author was a “next-of-kin” editor who wrote letters of condolence to the families of fallen soldiers, and also assisted Graves Registration preparing the deceased for transit home. These activities certainly cemented memories of stark results of that conflict.

This remarkable collection travels through six chapters that run the gamut of military service in Viet Nam, from remembering those who died, thoughts of home, images of Viet Nam, and  experiences of being back in the U.S. The chapter names are telling: Taps, Dreaming of Home, Life on the Perimeter (Camp Eagle), Pictures and Prayers, PTSD, and Seasons.

Good literature enables the reader to appear in the narrative, and Fragments certainly accomplishes this. It is an intense journey of courage and fear, brotherhood and horror, sadness and purposelessness. Upon returning to the U.S., there were dishonor and blame for the horrors of war. The rejuvenation of spirit that came from rejoining family, and finding solace in the sanctuary of kinship with other vets were the best things life could offer.

According to the author, writing these poems helped him “to come home”. They are not only his own reflections, but the accounts and memories of others. “The words are mine; the voices are many.”

These poems come illustrated by the Providence Art Club of Rhode Island to present a poignant aide-mémoire for those alive in those times.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts

April 16, 2021

 


Electric Brain: How the New Science of Brainwaves Reads Minds, Tells Us How We Learn, and Helps Us Change for the Better Cover Image
$26.95
ISBN: 9781946885456
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: BenBella Books - February 4th, 2020

Author R. Douglas Fields, PhD is a neuroscientist and an adjunct professor at the Neuroscience and Cognitive Science Program at the University of Maryland. Electric Brain is cutting edge neuroscience. It traces the history of brain wave research describing the doctors and researchers responsible for the various neuroscientific milestones. The work shows how different parts of the brain function, how its waves may be detected and, in some cases, manipulated with BCI (brain computer interface) equipment. Many types of BCI are described. The work recognizes current limitations, widespread public misunderstanding, and the need for more research and development.

The main devices and systems include EEG (electroencephalography), fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imagery), and ECoG (electrocorticography). Some others are: fNIRS (functional near infra-red spectroscopy), TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation), DBS (direct brain stimulation), and  tDCS (transcranial direct current stimulation). These devices record brain waves, use magnets, light, or electric to stimulate the brain, examine blood flow, or perform chemical analyses. Research is being conducted with the Stentrode, a cerebrovascular shunt used to place a microelectrode inside the brain via blood vessels, thereby avoiding surgery. Optogenetics involves using a laser to stimulate a neuron that has been genetically altered to control sensitivity to light. 

From potential reading difficulties to Parkinson’s Disease, from obesity to epilepsy, brain wave analysis and manipulation have been used to diagnose and treat myriad conditions, both physiological and psychological, with varying levels of success.

Of course, there is also research into the creation of neural weapons, which would likely not be covered under the Geneva Convention. Duke University and DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) share a patent for the development of neural weapons and robots.

There is so much fascinating material in Electric Brain, it would risk a disservice to the work to attempt to cover it all in a short review. However, it is with profound gratitude to Dr. Fields that he has provided me with his answers to some questions that completely intrigue me.

32nd Avenue Books:  Is the primacy of concepts over words in brain activity maps evident in abstract thinking? 

Dr. Fields: Yes, brain imaging research, notably by Marcel Just and colleagues, shows that the brain does not store and process information in the way we might imagine: according to a logical categorization of items, something like the index of a book or a computer database.  The brain stores words as fully integrated concepts, including all the emotions, experiences, and contexts an object (or experience) entails.  An apple and pea soup are both foods, and a computer would organize and store the two words under the heading of 'food items' for recall.  But in the brain these two items have entirely different and very rich associations and significances, and it is the entire Gestalt of each item that is represented in the brain.  A distinct constellation of neural activity that spans broadly across different brain regions is what represents each item.  

The same brain activity pattern is activated by both words in everyone's brain.  Regardless of what their native language may be, the Gestalt of each word is the same.

To my mind, this suggests that metaphor is something more than an embellishment; it may be fundamental to thought and language.

32nd Avenue Books: How would you describe the relationship between thought and language?

Dr. Fields: One of the things I love about writing is that it is pure creativity.  I enjoy other creative pursuits, but there is always something intervening between 'me' and the creation--a paint brush or camera, for example.  But by the time a sentence has bubbled up to your conscious brain, the creative act is over--what's left, writing it out in words, is just production.  

Another example:  How many times in conversation do we witness ourselves express an opinion, argue a point, or respond to a question without any deliberation or conscious verbal construction?  At such times, it is almost as if we are observers hearing ourselves speak our thoughts out loud for the first time, just as the listener does.  Obviously, other animals do not have written or spoken language, but they do have complex thoughts and reasoning.

So thought is deeper and more complex than language.  Thoughts arise from 'global' activity storms sweeping across the cerebral cortex, evoking sights, sounds, sensations, emotions, recollections of experiences, and more.  By contrast, language stems largely from one tiny spot in the left hemisphere.

One of the fascinating findings of this area of research from functional brain imaging, is that abstract thoughts, like advanced concepts in physics, have activity maps in brain centers that carry out bodily functions the brain evolved to perform.  For example, learning the complex physics of wave propagation, activates the same brain regions as bodily movement and dance.  This suggests that concepts that cannot map onto the brain's innate structural and functional networks that are designed to perceive and interact with the world, may be beyond human comprehension.

32nd Avenue Books: Can you see clear paths to neurological enhancement?

Dr. Fields: Electrical and magnetic brain stimulation is being used to enhance cognitive performance.  For example, the Dept. of Defense uses direct current transcranial stimulation to greatly increase the speed of pilot training and boost performance.  This method involves applying a small voltage to a spot on the head to stimulate or inhibit the brain region under the electrode, and there are several other methods.  As we learn more about how specific cognitive functions are performed by distinct brain circuits, those processes can be enhanced or suppressed by any number of new non-invasive means of manipulating electrical activity in the brain.  

The same applies to neurological and psychological conditions.  Manipulating electrical activity specifically in the neural circuits gone awry by using precision brain stimulation holds great promise; especially in contrast to the current treatments with drugs or surgery.

 

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Gifts & Toys

April 18, 2021


27 Essential Principles of Story: Master the Secrets of Great Storytelling, from Shakespeare to South Park Cover Image
$19.95
ISBN: 9781523507160
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Workman Publishing Company - August 18th, 2020

Author Daniel Joshua Rubin has written for theater, television, and digital productions, and has taught dramatic writing at Loyola University and the University of California at San Diego. His work, 27 Essential Principles of Story, is a great choice for anyone who has a story to tell. 

The book is divided into three parts: the first has ten chapters, or essential principles, on plot, the second part has nine essential principles on character, and the third part has seven essential principles on dialog, setting, and theme. 

Every important dynamic of classic dramatic story structure is described, demonstrated, explained, and presented with a short test. To do this, each principle is given utilizing examples from various writers with very different styles. From Shakespeare to Eminem, every fundamental step in story-creation is shown in explicit and easy to follow fashion.

In plot, you see how to establish a central dramatic question, create risk, clash expectation with reality, and intensify action. In character, you learn to make the hero active, have the characters perform at the top of their intelligence, how to use masks, and have strong antagonists. You’ll see how the setting affects the whole story, and how your theme can actually be attacked in order to strengthen its persuasiveness and better its function of leading the narrative, and how dialog is used to illustrate the characters.

At times, this work seemed like a collection of highly useful tricks designed to obtain the best story possible, such as having the hero move closer to his goal while simultaneously moving further away, or finding paths to the appropriate mindset when writing.

While story-creation may be thought of as the creation of fiction, it is worthy to note that its purpose regularly goes far beyond entertainment. Humans make facts from fiction-consider corporations, nations, religions, and money. The purposes of story include helping us make sense of the world, and validating our experiences.

A pleasant surprise for me was the enjoyment of experiencing the works of the various authors Rubin uses to demonstrate the principles. His familiarity with their works made it a ride on a carousel of literary styles.

March 11, 2021

Steven Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts

Bookstore


Lifespan: Why We Age—and Why We Don't Have To Cover Image
$30.00
ISBN: 9781501191978
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Atria Books - September 10th, 2019

In his book Lifespan, Harvard geneticist and researcher David A Sinclair describes various methods of increasing lifespans and also healthspans, or the duration of vitality. The work begins with a primordial earth spawning the first life forms and ends with the Earth’s most advanced organism amending and altering its own shape.

The path of evolution has its start with a progenitor organism with the imagined name of Magna Superstes, or “great survivor.” Its genetic survival mechanism is based on its ability to switch its forces back and forth from replication to repair, and it foretells a nature common to all future life, no matter how complex the form.

The author defines a host of “hallmarks” of aging. They are: genomic instability caused by DNA damage; attrition of the protective endcaps of the chromosomes, the telomeres; alterations to the epigenome that controls which genes are turned on or off; loss of healthy protein maintenance, known as proteostasis; deregulated nutrient sensing caused by metabolic changes; mitochondrial dysfunction; accumulation of senescent zombie-like cells that inflame healthy cells; exhaustion of stem cells; altered intercellular communication and the production of inflammatory  molecules. Dr. Sinclair believes that, should any of these conditions be halted, the process of aging may be slowed, and should all of them be halted, aging, in theory, could be stopped.

In order to halt those aging processes, gene-editing interventions may be performed in the embryo, using enzymes such as I-Ppol or Cas9. thus allowing certain regenerative processes to be activated later in life. Another area of research is the development of senolytics, or medicines that destroy zombie cells. 

According to the author, the three main pathways to longevity involve mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), AMPK (an enzyme that assists in nutrient sensing), and sirtuins (proteins that regulate cellular homeostasis and require NAD to function. NAD is a coenzyme important to mitochondrial function) Some therapeutic agents, such as NMN (a supplement that can treat metabolic disorders) and metformin, may stimulate longevity circuits. 

Some lifeforms, such as Greenland sharks and bristlecone pines, already have vastly greater lifespans than humans, and therefore are subjects of research. Another life form, the tardigrade, has a much greater ability to repair DNA damage, so its genetic nature is under deserved scrutiny. And surprising research with lab mice and yeast cells show that aging may be diminished or even ended.

Moreover, challenging oneself with temperature (being a little bit cold or hot), reducing the intake of calories, avoiding amino acids from animal sources, and engaging in exercise will likely lead to a longer and healthier lifespan.

For me, the most important take-away from this work was the realization that there is no definite limit to a lifespan should aging itself is brought under control. Reading Dr. Sinclair’s work was a journey from disbelief to expectation.

March 2, 2021

Steven Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts

Bookstore


Made in China: A Prisoner, an SOS Letter, and the Hidden Cost of America’s Cheap Goods Cover Image
$27.95
ISBN: 9781616209179
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Algonquin Books - February 2nd, 2021

 

Debut author Amelia Pang, an award-winning investigative journalist, has produced Made in China, a work that is moving, illuminating, and purposeful. The story begins when an American woman named Julie Keith discovers an SOS note in some old Halloween decorations. In broken English, the note asks the finder to notify the “World Human Right Organization” of the plight of forced laborers in a laogai, or ReeducationThrough Labor camp, where the sender is detained. Ms. Keith is quite upset, and eventually contacts Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and Customs and Border Protection (CBP). She is interviewed by ICE, which subsequently makes a formal request to visit the Masanjia RTL camp, where the note originated. They are refused.

This book is largely an exposé of China’s horrid forced labor camps, and other extralegal detention facilities, in which people may be “detained” indefinitely, without benefit of defense or meaningful trial, and how their sad conditions, along with environmental degradation, are the true cost of China’s low cost merchandise, and our unbridled consumerism. Torture and threats to family members are involved. 

The book’s emphasis is on the story of Sun Yi, author of the SOS note: his background, family, and involvement in Falun Gong, a system of healing meditations and moral codes. He was imprisoned for this involvement. 

The millions of Chinese killed by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in the Great Leap Forward and in the Cultural Revolution left a China transformed into something very different from the China of its past. The author observes that, “This is why modern mainland Chinese tend to place higher value on social stability than human rights. The last thing they want is another revolution.” Instability, it seems, is the mother of tyranny. 

There are also stunning revelations about China’s pervasive artificial intelligence-enhanced facial recognition cameras. In Xinjiang, the northwestern province of the Turkic Uyghurs, the CCP collects not only their images, but alarmingly, their biometric data, ostensibly to monitor their health. Such data would be crucially important, should the CCP ever decide to massacre Uyghurs for their bodily organs. Such a possibility exists since the Uyghurs, who widely oppose the CCP,  live in a location that China’s “Belt and Road Initiative” program of expansion aims to traverse.

There is excellent advice on ways to resist China’s aggressive foreign trade practices, particularly through the use of social media to force corporate compliance with sourcing laws. This is perhaps the best way to counter the nightmarish oppression of dissidents and minorities in the laogai.

For me, the most important conclusion from reading this work was the understanding that tyranny depends absolutely on uniformity of thought. Any ideas or notions that do not serve its precepts constitute an existential threat to it, chief among which would be the notion of liberty itself.

32nd Avenue Books: I was compelled to ask this significant and talented writer if she could envision a future China in which the CCP is no longer in control, and whether she felt that any countries in the West might find themselves on a path to communism. I am quite pleased to present her observations:

Amelia Pang: We would all like to see China transition to a democracy. But I don't think that can happen unless the masses in China revolt to topple the CCP. Unfortunately, the average person in China does not see the CCP as an authoritarian regime. For many Chinese people, criticizing the CCP means criticizing China. It would feel unpatriotic. This is the result of decades of propaganda, as well as cultural and historical factors like the "Century of Humiliation." A lot of people in China are reluctant to accept that Western democracy is a good fit for China. That's why it is so rare to come across a dissident in China. And it is tragic that, instead of organizing and mobilizing the masses, these individuals are stuck in labor camps making our cheap products. 

And I don't see any countries on the path to China's version of communism. The Chinese Communist Party is a misnomer in some sense. "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" is really just capitalism, albeit authoritarian capitalism.

Nov. 1, 2020

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts 

Bookstore


Naturalist: A Graphic Adaptation Cover Image
$28.00
ISBN: 9781610919586
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Island Press - November 10th, 2020

Created to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Naturalist, E.O. Wilson’s autobiography, this graphic adaptation by Jim Ottaviani and C.M. Butzer depicts the life history of E. O. Wilson, arguably the world’s most accomplished myrmecologist, or ant expert. 1This work employs great use of parallel structure, beginning with the mature Wilson visiting the young Wilson in the Pensacola of the 1930’s, and later with the middle-aged Wilson in various settings. There is frequent use of binomial nomenclature, such as  Sistrurus miliarius.

His early years in Pensacola, the divorce of his parents, his placement in the Gulf Coast Military Academy, the remarriage of his parents, his travels throughout the South with his father, his time in the Boy Scouts, and his friendship with Elis Macleod are all presented, as are many of the other significant events of his life.

In 1945, at the age of 16, he decided to become an entomologist, eventually specializing in myrmecology. For me, his early embrace of biology was noteworthy. While he had always found fascination with the southern biome, his recognition of, value for, and commitment to biology at such an early age was remarkable. 

Seeking a path to college, he tried to enlist in the Army, but failed due to blindness in one eye. The University of Alabama accepted him, and there he received a Bachelor of Science degree. After a brief stay at the University of Tennessee, he went to Harvard where his first research project involved the study of the Lasius ant. From there, his work involved much travel, deeper research, important social and professional relationships, and unique discoveries. He worked on expeditions in Cuba, Mexico, Australia, New Guinea, Fiji, Europe, America, and several other places.

He discovered that citronella, as well as other compounds, are secreted by the glands of ants, and that this is a major way they communicate. He first identified the Solenopsis fire ant in the U.S., and discovered a new species of ant in Australia. He found Aneuretus simoni, a link between two worldwide groups of ants, the Myrmicinae and the Dolichoderinae in Ceylon. He helped discover the evolutionary dynamics of hybridization and character displacement, which help explain how individuals within a species can become more alike or more different. He formulated the taxon cycle, a biogeographical theory of evolution involving range expansion and contraction. He is the founder of sociobiology, a field of biology that connects the social behavior of species to evolution. He remains a voice for the preservation of biodiversity on Earth.

This adaptation provides a quick journey through the life of this talented and accomplished scientist. As a graphic novel, it offers the reader the chance to enjoy a visual excursion while learning the story of a man whose life’s work remains significant in its influence.

C. M. Butzer is an illustrator, printmaker, and cartoonist. Jim Ottaviani writes graphic novels about scientists, and Hilary Sycamore is a colorist who has taught art and design. Edward O. Wilson has written more than 30 books, including The Ants and On Human Nature, both of which won Pulitzer Prizes. Dr. Wilson is Faculty Emeritus in the Museum of Comparative Zoology and Pellegrino University professor, Emeritus at Harvard University.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts Bookstore


Humans Cover Image
$35.00
ISBN: 9781250114297
Availability: Backordered - Not In Stock
Published: St. Martin's Press - October 6th, 2020

After Humans of New YorkHumans of New York: Stories, and Little Humans, author Brandon Stanton has produced Humans, another example of his visionary storytelling style. This work has photos and quotes from over 400 randomly selected individuals in over 40 countries. Within this collection are sections describing the birth, evolution, and operation of his unique style. His confidence and skill in interviewing grew as did his understanding of how his subjects could be led to reveal their stories.

Although Humans is not an anthropological study per se, it does present a significant truth— irrespective of language or culture— once people are convinced that defenses are unnecessary, most will gladly reveal personal stories. When the fears and suspicions caused by stress fragment and disappear, vulnerabilities emerge enabling us to connect. This book can be opened anywhere, and the reader is immediately grabbed. Whether it is a simple photo of a small girl in Ukraine holding a kitten, or a multi-page memoir of a survivor of the Rwandan genocide, the frank intimacy overwhelms.

These amazing quotes represent human interest, but little more. There are no great lessons to be learned from their details. They are not significant in their content. Yet, they are valuable for different reasons. They bestow upon the reader the sense of having met an incredible diversity of people. They prove that openness can be gained through trust—everywhere. They allow us the chance to see our own lives as puzzle pieces that fit, somewhere, on the puzzle that is humanity. Obtained with randomness, they deliver a type of truth that is a gift to objectivity, since neither the questions nor the subjects adhere to any narrative. And they show the enthusiasm of a man to pursue his idea and method of encountering the human condition.

Humans is unique. It took a special kind of person to create such a book. It took someone who discerned the merit in accomplishing this portrait of humanity, retained faith in his plan, and diligence in his effort.

 

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts Bookstore


Mill Town: Reckoning with What Remains Cover Image
$27.99
ISBN: 9781250155931
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: St. Martin's Press - September 1st, 2020

Kerri Arsenault is a book editor at Orion Magazine, a contributing editor at The Literary Hub, and a mentor for PEN, America’s Prison and Justice Writing Program. She serves on the National Book Critics Circle Board, writes for lithub.com, and teaches nonfiction in The Master of Arts Program in Writing and Oral Traditions at the Graduate Institute in Bethany, CT.

Mill Town: Reckoning with What Remains is Kerri Arsenault’s debut work. It tells the story of Mexico, and other small towns in Maine that have a long relationship with a paper mill. It is a well-researched work, (research that was often difficult to conduct), that includes and is based on historical information, various academic, governmental, legal and scientific records. It describes the profoundly negative effects the mill had on the people who worked in it and on those who lived nearby, many of whom were working class Acadians. 

It describes the environmental damage caused by toxic releases from the mill, such as when the burning of tires for fuel causes a release of dioxin, and the astronomical cancer rates likely caused by release of myriad toxins. But it also tells of the positive socio-economic effect the mill had on those same people. It asks the question “what are we willing to tolerate and whose lives are we willing to sacrifice for life itself?”

Perhaps industry has unpaid debts to the workers of Maine who, despite making their living in the mill, suffered along with their environment. Industry’s actions represent “a blight in the political, cultural, social, moral and aesthetic choices we’ve made.” The author considers “the Precautionary Principle” of the European Union, where industry must first prove that its actions will not have a harmful effect on people or the environment before it can proceed.

The book also deals with the effects of Nestlé’s involvement in Maine, as it is there to procure water. This has led to the commodification of water, as it did to Maine’s forests, allowing the benefit of resources to flow to the producers instead of to the people at large.

Ultimately, Mill Town: Reckoning with What Remains presents the reader with a microcosm. Everywhere, the same dilemma is repeated. People will endanger the environment and risk their health when that means making a living for themselves and their families—it takes only a moment of reflection to realize the truth of this.

Sincere thanks to Kerri for her responses to my questions. 

32nd Avenue Books: You recognize that the mill enabled many to earn a living by working there. Do you feel that, in some sense, there was a balance between the positive and negative effects of its presence?

Kerri: This is the perfect question to understand the nut of my book but also  an impossible question for me to answer. I tried hard not to view my examination of this same question in binary terms. To boil it down for those who haven’t read the book, the overwhelming negative aspect of working in the mill was that you may get cancer, perhaps caused by mill’s pollution, and the positive aspect of working there was that it was a good job with decent wages. So if we look at this in a binary way, the question is: were these deaths worth it? Such a black and white question only results in a yes or no. My book tries to examine this question for many points of view, and in the end, I’m not sure there is a clear answer, and in fact, I may have only just raised more questions (which I hope is true!) Also, I'd like readers to try and answer that question for themselves. And I’m guessing their answer will change depending on their own background. While the answer seems obvious, of course no job is worth someone’s life, then why do we continuously choose it? It’s a human conundrum with loads of ingredients informing that conflict.

32nd Avenue Books: Do you feel that Nestlé’s involvement in Maine was essentially one-sided, benefiting only Nestlé, or did Maine benefit as well?

Kerri: Nestle, like any big corporation, is largely concerned with their bottom line. Nestle has not been welcome in many communities...Why? Many opponents to Nestle see water as a right—as critical as air—not something to be sold or auctioned away. Some opponents just don’t want trucks rumbling through their towns or chewing up their roads. Environmental activists see Nestle’s activities as nearsighted or motivated by greed because the amounts they extract from the ground are beyond what’s ever been extracted before. Others have complained about Nestle's child labor abuses and trafficking, and yet others complained of their environmental violations and greenwashing. Nestle has been boycotted around the world for its marketing of baby milk formulas. They have also been sued for fraud.

In Osceola Township Michigan, the community worried the large scale water extraction would ruin the environment. In Northern California the same concern. Residents of a First Nations community near Toronto who lacked a dependable and safe water supply, watched helplessly as Nestle extracted millions of gallons of water from treaty lands. The story is repeated again and again and again. People in the towns of Hollis and Fryeburg, Maine have been trying to oust Nestle since the early 2000s. But as I write in Mill Town, they are as hard to boot out as a sloppy guest who drinks all your beer.

While I do see the need for bottled water in emergency situations, I don't see any benefit to such large scale water extraction. 

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts Bookstore

August 27, 2020


Dearly: New Poems Cover Image
$27.99
ISBN: 9780063032491
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Ecco - November 10th, 2020

The soul of a poet lives in a special place near the borderlands of words and emotions, and Margaret Atwood is no stranger to that place. Her work, Dearly, has the imprint of her style: crafty and slightly dark, at times melancholy, and always varied. She writes of women and sisters, the past, odd remembrances. She reminisces about cats and aliens, werewolves and nature. Her wit and effect are genuinely and easily enjoyable. 

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts


Edison Cover Image
$22.00
ISBN: 9780812983210
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Random House Trade Paperbacks - November 3rd, 2020

Author Edmund Morris won the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award for his debut work, The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt, in 1980. An accomplished writer, he also produced President Reagan’s authorized biography, Dutch: A Memoir of Ronald Reagan.

Edison is an eight-hundred page work describing the life of Thomas A. Edison, patent-holder of over a thousand various inventions, in addition to being the creator of the first research and development facility. This well-written work is of frame structure, starting at the end of Edison’s life and working back to his early years.

It is a complete story of this renowned and influential man. The business side of his work—patent wars, a crooked attorney, traitorous associates, military connections, bankers and investors;  the technical issues (processes, problems, mistakes and successes) of many of his inventions are all well detailed, and there is great attention to family relationships.

When reading Edison, I felt that the author was often seeking insight into the character of Edison, apparently a man whose character traits were sometimes evident and sometimes not. The author met the challenge of portraying Edison as a person (not simply as an inventor) by often drawing on the impressions of those who knew him. He was described as a driven taskmaster, often autocratic, and quite demanding of his employees. He had no problem laying off large numbers of workers when he saw fit.

He was generous to those who lent themselves to his projects, but had little time for those who did not. He highly valued curiosity, alertness, the ability to observe, and the power of observation. He was a compulsive risk-taker.

He was always inspired by difficulty, regarding problems or challenges almost as a source of delight. Although he lacked a formal education, he studied and read unceasingly. To his disadvantage, he would sometimes share his ideas.

I felt that Thomas Alva Edison was a brilliant and enigmatic person but, I could discern no great happiness in his life. Somehow, his genius seemed to carry some defect within its shine.

This is a good read for all who enjoy invention, and especially those who want to know about this incredible man who changed history.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts Bookstore


Dreams of El Dorado: A History of the American West Cover Image
$18.99
ISBN: 9781541672543
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Basic Books - October 20th, 2020

H. W. Brands Dreams of El Dorado is a history of the westward expansion of the United States. From Lewis and Clark’s Corps of Discovery expedition through the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt, U.S. history is presented to the reader in a way that often gives the impression of hearing the words of people from the past. This is accomplished by abundant use of quotes from old sources, such as journals, books, and newspapers.

This fascinating history takes the reader through Thomas Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase, the fur trade, missionaries, Mormons, the drive to California (and its gold), Oregon when the British were there, and Texas when it was Spanish. From the stories of cowboys and great cattle drives to John Wesley Powell’s adventure in the Grand Canyon, Dreams of El Dorado is a memorable excursion through our past.

While there were many different dynamics in the history of the U.S., it seems apparent that there were two overarching factors that had continual effects on the general course of events: national discord due to slavery and conflict with Native Americans due to territorial expansion. 

The Missouri Compromise, The Compromise of 1850, The Kansas-Nebraska Act, the Dred Scott Case, and the Civil War itself all spectacularly illustrate this discord. Southern slave states were often obstacles to expansion because they wanted new states to accept slavery where the North did not. 

Conflict with Native Americans began with primary settlement in the eastern seaboard, pushing Indians westward. Settlements in California had a similar effect, displacing Indians and destroying native culture there. The Plains Indians still had the open terrain, but it was not to last. With the discovery of gold in the Black Hills, and the completion of the trans-continental railroad, the days of the Plains culture were soon to end.

While Plains Indian tribes suffered hardships and, ultimately, defeat due to the destruction of the buffalo herds, it was not simply a matter of white buffalo hunters killing buffalo. When the Indians adopted horses, the horse became a competitor for the buffalo’s food. The Indians, who already hunted buffalo, became more efficient hunters with the horse. And cattle also ate the grasses, and even spread diseases among buffalo.

And of course, neither North nor South suffered any serious objection to depriving Native Americans of their domain.

Author H.W. Brands holds the Jack S. Blanton Sr. Chair in History at the University of Texas at Austin, and was a Pulitzer Prize finalist for The First American and Traitor to His Class.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books Toys & Gifts Bookstore


Valentine: A Novel Cover Image
$17.00
ISBN: 9780062913272
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Harper Perennial - March 2nd, 2021

Debut author Elizabeth Wetmore grew up in West Texas. She is a graduate of the Iowa Writers’ Workshop. Her fiction has appeared in various reviews and journals and she is a recipient of fellowships from the National Endowment of the Arts and the Illinois Arts Council.

Her novel, Valentine, tells the stories of various women in Odessa, a West Texas oil country town in the 1970’s. These stories, like the place they tell about, are hardscrabble. It’s a rough read. Their stories connect to a rape of a fourteen-year-old girl, and there is poverty, loneliness, grief and struggle. The wisdom is brutal, and the truth naked. Yet, intense beauty and sharp humor pervade the roughness.

What made this work memorable for me was experiencing the author’s recreation of 1970’s West Texas. Her writing, with its genuine and polished idiom, will take you there. This is powerful stuff. She is an amazing and talented writer. 

Steven Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts Bookstore


The Black and the Blue: A Cop Reveals the Crimes, Racism, and Injustice in America's Law Enforcement Cover Image
$16.99
ISBN: 9780316440097
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Legacy Lit - August 6th, 2019

Mathew Horace was a policeman in Arlington, Virginia before he joined the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. He is a twenty-eight-year veteran of law enforcement in federal, state and local police capacities and has worked internationally. 

He has trained thousands of police and has an impressive history of involvement in various law enforcement activities.

His work, The Black and the Blue traces through the history of racism in police forces, and describes the memes which underpin its existence. Most importantly, he describes ways to undercut those memes-ways to bring the police closer to the community. 

At times, it is a rough read. There are incredible stories of police misdeeds, poor hiring practices, and deficient training. Racism can be behind those problems, but often it is implicit bias, an unrecognized discriminatory attitude that influences behavior. 

Mathew Horace worked with numerous law enforcement representatives connected with efforts to improve police recruitment, hiring and training practices. From his myriad experiences, he makes thoughtful and salient recommendations for what should be done. Police agencies need to conduct screening for implicit bias levels and periodic psychological and physical assessment of cops. Additionally, police officers should receive training with use-of-force scenarios based on de-escalation techniques.

Recommended for law enforcement personnel and anyone interested in improving police/community relations. We are grateful for his interview, which follows.

32nd Avenue Books: Should there be any component to police training that educates police to behave differently toward people of different races?

Matthew Horace: All police departments should receive cultural sensitivity training.  This should be in conjunction with anti-bias and implicit bias training.  The idea is to recognize that we all have implicit biases but they need to be recognized and we need to be trained as to how to identify them, understand them and overcome them.

32nd Avenue Books: You write that you never really wanted to become a police officer. Nevertheless, that is what you did. How did that happen?

Matthew Horace: Many police departments (progressive ones) recruit on college campuses. As an NCAA D-1 athlete, I knew that I could endure the physical rigors.  I had seen so much bad policing as a kid growing up in Philly, I figured why not become a part of the solution and not the problem.  It was a great opportunity right out of college with great pay, tenure, benefits, and it appealed to my sense of team work, esprit de corp and community engagement.  It also prepared me to be considered for hire into the elite federal law enforcement system.

32nd Avenue Books: There was a time when you were an aggressive cop. Can you describe the process in which you changed?

Matthew Horace: We are taught to be aggressive as a part of our duties.  Naturally, a lot of athletes are drawn to the profession.  Aggression is not the problem.  Over aggression is the problem.  Many of us understand where the line is drawn because we have been subjected to these behaviors as victims.  Treat people with respect until they show you otherwise or become a threat to you or others.   

32nd Avenue Books: You say that everyone has biases. How do you determine whether a bias can be held in check?

Matthew Horace: You have to identify what your biases are first, acknowledge them and practice a paradigm shift. 

 32nd Avenue Books: Emantic Bradford, Jr. was a “good guy with a gun” in Alabama. What could have prevented his shooting? 

Matthew Horace: Keep in mind that Mr. Bradford wasn't a police officer.  In the book we talk about one of the dangers of being black and blue is never being considered by others as being part of a solution, but always being feared.  In the book, we call this the boogeyman effect.  This problem transcends to any black person with a visible gun.  We are going to be assumed guilty because of the implicit biases that have been ingrained in our psyches.  Our story about NY police officer Omar Edwards illustrates the point all too well.  The case in Ohio where a black man was shot to death in a Walmart while holding a toy gun further illustrates this. It is for this reason that many of us, when off duty, don't respond to or react to crimes in our presence.  In fact, in the book I point out having been almost shot by a white police officer during an undercover operation where I was mistaken for a bad guy.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toy & Gifts Bookstore


Biased: Uncovering the Hidden Prejudice That Shapes What We See, Think, and Do Cover Image
$18.00
ISBN: 9780735224957
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Penguin Books - March 3rd, 2020

Dr. Eberhardt is a professor of psychology at Stanford. She was also the recipient of a 2014 MacArthur genius grant and has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, and has various other awards. Biased is mainly an examination of implicit racial bias, the kind of bias that may easily be unrecognized and can be long-standing. It is conditioning that results from lengthy experience and is certainly not restricted to whites, as it occurs in blacks and others as well.  She describes many psychological tests and historical events that show implicit bias is pervasive, not only in the U.S., but globally as well. Biased is a surprising book that quickly takes the reader into a reckoning of widespread assumptions about race. 

While conditioning and categorizing habits are necessary for survival because they can speed up understanding of situations and make results predictable, they can also cause a mistaken assumption of wrongdoing. Stress from a need to react rapidly produces a state of ambiguity, and that can lead to behavior that relies on implicit bias. 

Dr. Eberhardt has conducted lessons for law enforcement in Oakland and recommends procedural justice training for police. This means that police learn to give voice to the community, and to demonstrate fairness, respect and trustworthiness. 

For schools, she suggests empathy training for teachers and values affirmation exercises for the students. This gives the teachers an understanding of the kinds of student experiences that lead to misbehavior, and the kinds of effective discipline used by others. Students write about personal values to recognize their potential and see the school as supportive. This also helps teachers to see the students as individuals.

Recommended for teachers, police, social workers and all who desire to learn about unconscious racial bias.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts Bookstore


The Perfect Predator: A Scientist's Race to Save Her Husband from a Deadly Superbug: A Memoir Cover Image
$16.99
ISBN: 9780316418119
Availability: Backordered - Not In Stock
Published: Hachette Books - November 10th, 2020

Steffanie, an infectious disease epidemiologist at UCSD, and Tom, an evolutionary sociobiologist and experimental psychologist also at UCSD, are a couple on vacation in Egypt. Tom becomes quite sick and soon is taken to a clinic in Luxor. 

He does not improve, so he is subsequently flown to another hospital in Germany, where it is discovered that he is suffering from a pancreatic pseudocyst and is also infected with a multi-drug resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii. This is one of the most dangerous nosocomial (hospital-borne) pathogens. They begin administering meropenem, tigecycline and colistin—heavy duty, last resort antibiotics. 

Tom is transferred to the intensive care unit at the Thornton Hospital in San Diego, where they have more experience with this bug. However, his condition worsens and he goes into septic shock and is put on a ventilator. A drain that had been placed in his pseudocyst slips, causing the A. baumannii infection to enter his whole body. He is placed in a medically-induced coma and his doctors wonder how soon he will need dialysis. He receives many other antibiotics, but to no avail. Tom is dying.

Steffanie is overwhelmed and begins a scientific search for an answer. She discovers several therapeutic alternatives to the use of antibiotics, only one of which she deems workable. This is a treatment that uses bacteriophages (viruses that can attack and kill bacteria). A phage is much smaller than a bacterium and can only be seen with an electron microscope.

After locating sources of phages and seeking approval from the FDA for an eIND (experimental investigational new drug), she and her colleagues begin the work needed to create a product that may save Tom’s life. The correct phages, in the case of A. baumanini, need to be type-specific. This means that they had to be matched to Tom’s bacterial isolate. They also had to undergo a difficult purification process, and since bacteria actually evolve during treatment, several different phages would be used.

Between the chapters, there are eight interludes that relate the often horror-filled hallucinatory recollections that Tom experienced throughout his ordeal.

The startling details of this medical adventure describe the first time an A. baumannii phage therapy was administered intravenously to a human being in North America, and likely will help propel the FDA into forming appropriate regulatory protocol. 

The Perfect Predator is ultimately a happy story, and also a profoundly significant work because its details illustrate not only the result but the method of excellent and elegant science. 

We are very happy to include Dr. Strathdee’s answers to to some of our questions.

32nd Avenue Books Toys & Gifts: How is a phage’s suitability determined? 

Dr. Strathdee: First, it must be determined whether a phage can be found that matches the bacterial isolate.  The bacterial culture is streaked on a petri dish and incubated so that the colonies can be visualized.  The environmental sample (or purified phage) is added to the petri dish and incubated.  If a phage is present that matches the bacteria, plaques are seen as holes in the agar.  The plaques can be plucked out and added to a new bacterial suspension to expand it, before purification.  Ideally, the phage is also sequenced to ensure that it is a lytic phage that kills bacteria, as opposed to temperate phage (sometimes referred to as ‘lazy’ phage that integrates into the bacterial DNA and ‘hits the snooze button’).  Temperate phage is not ideal for phage therapy but if those  are the only phage that can be found, gene editing can be performed to convert it to lytic phage.

32nd Avenue Books Toys & Gifts: Can you describe your plans for future research? 

Dr. Strathdee: IPATH is engaged in research to determine optimal phage dosing and pharmacokinetics, as well as to move phage into clinical trials.  We are also fundraising to develop phage banks of fully characterized phage for major superbugs that could be available on every continent.

32nd Avenue Books Toys & Gifts: Are phages obtainable for other AMR (anti-microbial resistant) pathogens?

Dr. Strathdee: Oh yes.  Phage have been found for almost every bacterial species.  Sometimes these are temperate phages that need genetic modification, as described above.

 32nd Avenue Books Toys & Gifts: Do you see a time when humans will essentially be disease free? 

Dr. Strathdee: No. I don’t think its realistic to try to purge our bodies of micro-organisms as some play beneficial roles.  Bacteria and phage have co-evolved for millennia and the invisible arms race between them will continue.  We need more research to understand how bacteria, phage and our immune system interact.  We believe that phage can be developed to stay ahead of antimicrobial resistance, which means having large, ever-expanding phage banks available.   

For more information, see https://IPATH.USCD.EDU and ThePerfectPredator.com.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books Toys & Gifts Bookstore


The Russia Trap: How Our Shadow War with Russia Could Spiral into Nuclear Catastrophe Cover Image
$31.89
ISBN: 9781250316622
Availability: Special Order - Subject to Availability
Published: Thomas Dunne Books - September 3rd, 2019

In his work, The Russia Trap, former head of CIA’s Russia analysis George Beebe describes various elements that underpin the relationship between the U.S. and Russia, and how those elements could cause that relationship to spiral out of control and result in a catastrophic war. Such an event doesn’t have to happen, however, and the author makes some salient recommendations that could help prevent it. 

Mr. Beebe contrasts two forms of analysis: one that believes Russia to be aggressive and requiring punishment and isolation, the other believing Russia to be defensive and in decline, requiring diplomatic conflict resolution and compromise. Neither approach is totally wrong; rather, both are incomplete. According to the author, we need to “balance firmness with accommodation, and military readiness with diplomatic outreach…”

He compares the U.S-Russia relationship to those extant among European countries prior to World War One, where there was great systemic rigidity. Peace could collapse from any small trigger. Later, he takes us through two absolutely horrifying hypothetical scenarios illustrating just how war could occur without our intent.

To prevent this, the first step is to recognize that the hazard is a complex systems problem. This means that there are many changing factors that interconnect, that problems cannot be solved piecemeal, and that many things need to be done at once. Most pernicious is the belief that each side represents an existential threat to the other.

The advent of the cyberage has resulted in great and significant changes. The dynamics surrounding MAD (mutually assured destruction) can no longer be based on the same rules. Command, control, communication, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance functions are now operated by satellites which entangle both nuclear and conventional weapons systems, making the nature of military actions unclear. Cyberintrusions may be espionage, sabotage or influence, and may or may not come from a state actor. (Read his take on the 2016 Russian intrusion of the U.S. election.) Both the U.S. and Russia have stated that a cyberattack could result in a nuclear response. And the multipolarity of today’s world suggests that bilateralism itself may be anachronistic, even though most of the world’s nuclear weapons are held by Russia and the U.S.

To help prevent a catastrophic escalatory spiral, “escalate to deescalate” doctrines must be abandoned. To avoid rigidity, stability strategies must be imaginative and adaptable. Resilience must be built into our communications, technological, and rule-making systems. Geographic restriction on deployment of strategic weapons and proscription against certain cyberintrusions, for example, should be a part of any new set of rules.

The U.S. and Russia might best regard each other not as partners, but as competitors. Then we may be able to establish ways of safely competing while reducing the risk of war.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts Bookstore


Talking to Strangers: What We Should Know about the People We Don't Know Cover Image
$30.00
ISBN: 9780316478526
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Little, Brown and Company - September 10th, 2019

Talking to strangers is not easy. This is the central premise of author Malcolm Gladwell’s workTalking to Strangers. Gladwell uses various events to demonstrate how misunderstandings occur, and how the results can be sad and egregious. From the intelligence services to politics in World War Two; from Bernie Madoff, Amanda Knox and Jerry Sandusky to sexual assault cases and psychological experiments and rates of suicide in England, the author cites two main causes of misunderstanding: the default to truth and transparency.

Default to truth means that people generally will regard a stranger’s words to be true rather than false because normally, that is the case. Yes, we risk being deceived on occasion, but the trade-off is “social coordination and efficient communication.” It would not have been useful to evolve a tendency for continual suspicion. For good reasons, we will sometimes misunderstand the words and behavior of others, leaving us with a best approach of relying on respect and humility when engaging strangers while realizing that our abilities to understand have limits.

We always have doubts, but only depart from the truth default when doubts exceed a reasonable threshold. We continue to believe because we lack enough reason not to. 

Only when there is sufficient doubt do we begin to disbelieve.

Yet there are those rare people called “holy fools” who have no threshold to overcome and will accurately assess deceivers from the start. Harry Markopolos, who saw through Bernie Madoff’s Ponzi scheme, was such a person.

Transparency is the idea that we can determine a person’s true disposition and intent by their outward expressions and behavior. This is a myth that can be demonstrated with a FACS (Facial Action Coding System) which numbers facial muscle movements. Seeing a face may cause us to misunderstand the true sentiment inside. This is shown to be the case when computers, which cannot see facial expressions, have a greater percentage of correct decisions compared to humans who can.

Gladwell also describes coupling, which refers to a likelihood that certain behaviors are coupled with certain circumstances and conditions. He examines suicide rates in London during and after their use of town gas. He refutes the assumption that people who want to commit suicide will simply switch to a different means, should they be kept from their chosen method (displacement). Before the 1970s, most suicide was by town gas. But after they switched to natural gas, suicide rates fell. He also describes how policing techniques appropriate in one place and time may not be appropriate in another. So when assessing strangers, we should also consider time, location, and conditions as variables that play a part in accurate and ethical communication.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Gifts & Toys Bookstore


Who's Afraid of AI?: Fear and Promise in the Age of Thinking Machines Cover Image
$10.95
ISBN: 9781615195503
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: The Experiment - April 16th, 2019

Who’s Afraid Of AI? is a basic work that tells the major risks and benefits of AI (Artificial Intelligence) or machine learning. The Janus of our times does represent dangers, but it also heralds progress that will benefit humanity. An important question is, will the disruptive changes caused by AI occur too rapidly for humanity to adjust?

AI refers to machines (computers) that learn from data and extrapolate. The core skills are recognition, insight and implementation. By classifying the results of its actions, AI has the ability to autocorrect. It requires a robust set of rules and a physical apparatus that processes information based on those rules, and depends on feedback of data and pattern recognition.

Who’s Afraid of AI? takes the reader through the history of AI, from the work of Alan Turing in the 1930s, to the Dartmouth Conference in 1956, to an AI “winter” in the 1970s; from the brute force algorithms of Deep Blue, to Watson’s semantic analysis, to the intuition and creativity of AlphaGo, and the strategic thinking and risk-taking of Libratus in 2017. AI development became strong once the computational speed of computer chips increased and cloud storage of data became a reality.

Weak or narrow AI is what exists today; super AI is conceptual and as yet, non-existent. Super AI would be cognitively advanced, human-like, and possibly have self-awareness or self-interest. However, the development of super AI seems unlikely, absent the ability to control quantum dynamics. “Apocalypticists”  fear that a super AI might simply grow exponentially in intelligence until it became a singleton, or a single, omnipotent decision-making entity. Humanity could be deposed from its position as “apex cogitator,” rendered obsolete, and exterminated.

Weak AI still poses threats and requires governance. Products and services with AI tend to cause market share gain, thus risking collapse of the market economy by destroying competition. Individuals can be manipulated by deception from virtual assistants, and mass manipulation, surveillance and oppression could result from a state ungoverned by the rule of law. Will people draw the line anywhere at all when it comes to machine-driven infantilization? AI may not relieve us of the burden to think, but will people rid themselves of it anyway if AI offers them such a delusion?

But the promises of AI include increased productivity and GDP growth. Computers can translate texts, pilot vehicles, predict stock prices, conduct medical research, make diagnoses, and perform legal and business work, as well as work in farming, in construction, and in many other industries. Such changes may result in large numbers of people being unemployed, so the best approach will be to use AI to augment decision-making rather than to allow total automation. 

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books Toys & Gifts Bookstore


Topgun: An American Story Cover Image
$15.99
ISBN: 9780316416283
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Hachette Books - March 3rd, 2020

Dan Pedersen joined the Navy in 1953. In his book Top Gun, he tells the story of his life as a naval aviator and the story of Topgun (U.S. Navy Fighter Weapons School), which he founded with eight other men (the Original Bros) in 1969, in response to severe aviation losses over Viet Nam. Dan Pedersen, now 83 years old, has flown 39 different aircraft, made over 1,000 carrier landings and accumulated more than 6,000 flight hours. But this book is not only a history of that school and of Dan’s life.  It also tells the story of Lyndon Johnson’s and Robert McNamara’s inept and intrusive micromanagement of our military’s efforts.

In World War Two, the kill ratio between U.S. and Japanese forces was 19 to 1, and in Viet Nam it was 2 to 1. Our Phantom jets had missiles that often failed, and no guns. The Soviet MiGs used by the North Vietnamese had no missiles, but they did have cannons. Perhaps most importantly, our forces were severely constrained by rules of engagement imposed by the U.S. government that prevented our forces from successfully prosecuting the war. For example, our pilots were required to drop flares (!) before releasing bombs and to visually identify targets before firing a missile. This often meant they would be too close to use a missile, but would be in range of the enemy’s cannons. Pilots were trained to use missiles which they often could not successfully employ.

Eventually, the Navy decided to take steps. A lengthy report was issued which included the recommendation to start an Advanced Fighter Weapons School. Dan Pedersen became the first officer in charge, and the school was soon called Topgun. Dan was tasked with creating a curriculum for the school. Some Israeli pilots, here to become acquainted with the Phantom, were being hosted by Dan. They made the suggestion to use division of labor in training, as Israeli squadrons did. Each technical specialization—radar, weapons, ordnance, aerodynamics, tactics—was led by the person with the best knowledge and skills. This method came to describe the way Topgun would operate.

One of the techniques the pilots learned was called the Egg. Typically, Phantoms would fly in a pair. One pilot could engage the enemy while the other would fly up in a nearly vertical path without cutting power. Then, he would plummet back to the engagement to destroy the opponent. Topgun training resulted in a 600 per cent improvement in kill ratio, eventually leading to a ratio of 12 to 1 by the end of the war.  

This work is composed of the memories of a man who played a real part in protecting his fellow Americans during one of his country’s worst times. From flying a captured MiG at Area 51 to rescuing dying refugees from an overcrowded boat in the South China Sea, from the advent of guided weapons to the use of telemetry in training, his reminiscences inspire the imagination. He remembers: “God, How I loved flying. On a night like this, you could see for hundreds of miles at forty thousand feet. Crystal black sky overhead, lit with an infinite number of galaxies and their stars, the glittering cities below, like diamonds reflecting sunlight. Earth and life in all their beauty.”

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books Toys & Gifts Bookstore


Alone at Dawn: Medal of Honor Recipient John Chapman and the Untold Story of the World's Deadliest Special Operations Force Cover Image
$17.99
ISBN: 9781538729663
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Grand Central Publishing - June 23rd, 2020

This work tells the story of John Chapman, an Air Force CCT who lost his life in Afghanistan and posthumously received the Congressional Medal of Honor. John Chapman’s actions saved the lives of a SEAL team, and then a Ranger unit before he was killed. There are Rangers, SEALS, Delta forces and other units. There are Chechen and Uzbek Al Qaeda. Their weapons and equipment are formidable. Although the story is a sad one, it is also one that tells of the truly heroic deeds of an individual who put his brothers first.

Before reading this book, I had never heard of a CCT (Combat Control Team). It is a military occupational speciality that describes what may be the most elite soldier of all.

Training to become a CCT is reportedly more arduous than that for any other speciality, and the descriptions of that training do not lead one to assume otherwise. A reason for this is because the CCT must carry a heavier load (batteries and other equipment) than any other soldier. Once there is actionable intelligence, the military will place the CCT on the ground. His main function is to call in air strikes based on his observations. A CCT must have three-dimensional situational awareness.

Alone at Dawn traces the passage of events since Viet Nam: Grenada, Desert One, Bosnia, Somalia and then, 9/11 with Afghanistan; the Northern Alliance and Mullah Omar, vis à vis the technical evolution of the CCT. 

Combat controllers did not have a high priority in World War Two. Although the Army felt that it should have jurisdiction over them, the Air Force did obtain jurisdiction, believing that technical developments would eventually eliminate the need for Combat Control Teams.

There is a great deal of military jargon. The reader will be immersed in it and must pay attention to the acronyms to follow the story. ATC (Air Traffic Control), FTX (Field Training Exercise), NVG (Night Vision Goggles), SOF (Special Operations Force), and JSOC (Joint Special Operations Command) are a few examples.

This work is a creation of John’s sister, Lori Chapman Longfritz and Dan Schilling, a former CCT; Lori’s recollection of her brother and Dan’s expertise are well-reflected. It is a story of depth, love and brotherhood.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Gifts & Toys Bookstore


Upheaval: Turning Points for Nations in Crisis Cover Image
$22.99
ISBN: 9780316409148
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Back Bay Books - May 12th, 2020

Pulitzer-prize winning author Jared Diamond’s newest release deals with the topic of crises in nations, how and why they come about, and how they respond to those crises. Diamond uses twelve response factors recommended for individuals in crisis therapy, then finds parallel factors for nations. Upheaval is a historical analysis of how seven particular countries dealt with various types of crises. It also concerns crises facing the world as a whole. Those factors are: 1) obtaining a national consensus that a problem exists 2) accepting a national responsibility to act on the problem 3) building a “fence” isolating the problem 4) getting help from other nations 5) using other nations as models to find ways to solve the problem 6) national identity 7) honest self-appraisal 8) experience of previous national crises 9) dealing with national failure 10) situation-specific national flexibility 11) national core values 12) freedom from geopolitical constraints. 

A nation in crisis will need to make selective changes in order to escape the crisis, and its success or failure will depend on its responses to those twelve factors, responses that will facilitate or impede a favorable outcome.

The countries which Diamond selected for examination are countries in which he spent many years, and with which he therefore felt a high degree of familiarity. They were Finland, Japan, Chile, Indonesia, Germany, Australia, and the U.S. Examples of the crises they faced include Finland’s wars with the Soviet Union; Japan’s westernization and fall after World  War Two; Chile’s intense political polarization and the fall of Allende; events surrounding and stemming from the 1965 coup in Indonesia; Germany’s aftermaths of World War One, World War Two, and reunification, and Australia’s ethnic changes and loosening of ties to England. 

He believes that, while the U.S. is not currently in a crisis, it does have some very serious problems, the most important of which is the loss of political compromise. For politicians, the causes are the high cost of campaigning, the ease of air travel, and gerrymandering. But people other than politicians are also increasingly uncompromising, and this is due to the prevalence of internet-derived niche information use. The other major problems faced by the U.S. are the failure of eligible voters to vote, socioeconomic inequality, and lack of investment in our future.

For the world as a whole, he sees the possibility of nuclear war, climate change, resource depletion, and inequality of living standards as the greatest risks for crisis.

In great detail, he compares and contrasts the countries examined relative to those factors.

Drawing on psychology, history, and geography, Diamond produces an interdisciplinary study that gives the reader a new approach for analysis of crises.

Recommended for history and psychology buffs who will appreciate a readable yet highly detailed work.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Gifts & Toys Bookstore


Sea Stories: My Life in Special Operations Cover Image
$17.99
ISBN: 9781538729755
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Grand Central Publishing - June 2nd, 2020

And then I heard the voice of the Lord saying, “Whom shall I send and who will go for us?” And I said, “Here am I. Send me!” -Isaiah 6:8  (epigraph)

Admiral William H. McRaven (retired), author of the best-selling Make Your Bed, has produced another work telling stories of his life in the Navy SEALS. With service of 37 years, he retired as a Four-Star Admiral and Commander of all U.S. Special Operations Forces.

Admiral McRaven tells of growing up in a military family, with reminiscences of the American Officers’ Club in France, youthful hijinks on an air force base in the U.S., and  the value of confidence obtained from athletic achievement. He then jumps into the rigors of SEAL training and the insane challenges of Hell Week. The only fear he and his fellow “tadpoles” face is that of failure.

From there, he relates stories of various training exercises illustrated with mishaps such as a helicopter crash or a parachuting accident. Tales of actual combat operations follow, such as the capture of Saddam Hussein, the elimination of Osama bin Laden, and the rescue of Captain Richard Phillips from the Maersk Alabama off the coast of Somalia. These are stories of adventure and daring. But their value is more than entertainment; it is the lessons they teach, lessons of resoluteness, courage, equanimity, perseverance, motivation, reliability, and game knowledge.

For me, the most significant result of reading this book was the sense of meeting and getting to know its remarkable author. A man’s character may be determined by the objects of his love and respect. Admiral McRaven is a man with a great love for his family and country, faith in its youth, and an intense admiration for those whose sacrifices enabled good people to live in freedom. 

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts Bookstore


Who Says You're Dead?: Medical & Ethical Dilemmas for the Curious & Concerned Cover Image
$23.95
ISBN: 9781616209223
Availability: Backordered - Not In Stock
Published: Algonquin Books - October 8th, 2019

Author Jacob M. Appel, M.D. teaches ethics at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and is an attending psychiatrist in the Mount Sinai healthcare System. He has a medical degree from Columbia, a law degree from Harvard, and a master’s degree in bioethics from the Alden March Bioethics Institute of Albany Medical College. He has written several novels as well as other works of literature. 

Who Says You’re Dead? is a collection of seventy-nine hypothetical medical and ethical dilemmas, each of which is followed by a question that inspires ethical contemplation. This is the time for some deep, unforgettable, and character-revealing conversation! Actual case decisions, relevant standards, and experiential material then follow in a reflection relative to the dilemma, most of which remain open-ended.

What are the limits of doctor/patient confidentiality? Should people be able to sell their organs? Should sex be permitted in nursing homes? Should anyone be forced to take medication or required to have surgery? From reproductive issues to end-of-life situations, from body modification to experimental medicine, this collection of hypothetical dilemmas makes a treasurable spark for great conversation. 

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts Bookstore


The Last Unknowns: Deep, Elegant, Profound Unanswered Questions About the Universe, the Mind, the Future of Civilization, and the Meaning of Life Cover Image
By John Brockman, Daniel Kahneman (Foreword by)
$16.99
ISBN: 9780062897947
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: William Morrow Paperbacks - June 4th, 2019

One of the main reasons I enjoy reading is because of the rich intellectual stimulation that can be derived; it opens the mind and inspires curiosity and wonder. This work elegantly satisfies that drive.

The Last Unknowns is the last of John Brockman’s Edge Question Book Series. It asks 284 leading academics and thinkers the question, “What is ‘The Last Question,’ your last question, the question for which you will be remembered?” This book is the collection of their responses, and reading it once was not enough. Sometimes the questions seem to demand your answer, sometimes they seem like there could be no answer. And sometimes, you may not understand the question

Examples of these questions: “What is the hard limit of human longevity?”- Gregory Benford, professor emeritus of physics and astronomy, University of California;  “Does consciousness reside only in our brains?”- W. Brian Arthur, external professor, Santa Fe Institute;  “Which questions should we not ask and not try to answer?”- Nick Bostrom, author, Superintelligence; “How do our microbes contribute to that particular combination of continuity and change that makes us human?”- Elizabeth Wrigley-Field, assistant professor of sociology, University of Minnesota; “Will post-humans be organic or electronic?”- Martin Rees, former president, Royal Society.

Readers will marvel at the ideas and thoughts that the questions of these great thinkers reflect, consider their concerns and expectations, see and imagine their envisioned future, near and far.

Recommended for scientists, secondary school and college students, teachers, and anyone who enjoys deep thought and conversation.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts Bookstore


Write to the Point: A Master Class on the Fundamentals of Writing for Any Purpose Cover Image
$14.95
ISBN: 9781615194629
Availability: Special Order - Subject to Availability
Published: The Experiment - August 7th, 2018

Sam Leith’s Write to the Point is indeed a master class on the fundamentals of writing for any purpose. He is a literary editor at the Spectator and columnist for The Financial Times, Evening Standard, and Prospect. His writing has appeared in other publications and he has written several other books including Words Like Loaded Pistols: Rhetoric from Aristotle to Obama. His observations about language-what makes it tick, how it works (or doesn’t), and various ways to improve it are focused, entertaining, and born of experience. 

He takes you from the parts of speech through punctuation, rewriting exercises, techniques of accomplishing effective writing, common mistakes and controversies, and observations on writing for different purposes. He provides many fine recommendations on achieving a desired register, or tone, in your work. For me, the most important result gained from reading this work was learning ways to read my own writing analytically. Writing is like a musical instrument that must be properly tuned before it can sound right.

His advice is expert: Strive to produce right-branching sentences, with the subject and verb up front, (that is, part of the time), be direct, avoid cliche, begin with the most important elements, and consider the “camera angles” of your prose. Pay attention to how your writing sounds when you read it. Think of the effects of punctuation, syntax and choice of words on its cadence. Do they give it the kind of emphasis you want? Above all, seek brevity and clarity. And learn when to break the rules.

For anyone who enjoys the craft of language, and especially anyone who really wants to write well, this book will be a joy to read, and even to reread.

And since Sam Leith is an accomplished and influential writer, I wanted to get his ideas on a few topics. I very much appreciate his response to my questions.

32nd Avenue Books: How do you see language changing in the future?

Sam Leith: I think what we've seen is that thanks to digital media everyone now masters a much greater range of written registers and idioms than they used to: linguistic change moves faster, too, with in-words and borrowings going global in a matter of months rather than decades. So I think the melting pot is getting bigger, and richer, and more complicated -- and that's all to the good. 

32nd Avenue Books: Can you describe a single, most important thing that makes good writing good?

Sam Leith: There’s no single thing, because as I hope comes over in my book, using language well is *always* situational: it's about the right words for the right context and audience. But I do think that cadence is much, much more important than you'd think from the very limited extent to which it's discussed. A good ear for the rhythm of words makes a huge difference. 

32nd Avenue Books: Was there someone who had a major influence on you writing?

Sam Leith: There are so many writers I admire, and whose effects I've probably borrowed or imitated here and there, that it's hard to say. Some of David Foster Wallace's vamping between high and low styles, I think, has rubbed off on me in my journalism, and I've read a lot of poetry growing up so everything from Sylvia Plath's sound-effects or Auden's simultaneous exactness and talkiness to the stately cadences and unexpected word choices of early Robert Lowell have probably influenced my ear. Perhaps the likes of Berryman and Elizabeth Bishop and Nathanael West and Evelyn Waugh for taking a cheerful approach to dark material. But I can't point to a single writer I've been directly shaped by. It's all part of the mental mulch. Mostly I've been influenced by the people over the years -- parents, teachers, friends, colleagues -- who have pressed books on me and encouraged me to read very widely and enthusiastically. The more you read -- and in my case that's everything from Chris Claremont to Shakespeare -- the more you learn to write, in my opinion.

Steven Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts Bookstore


Indianapolis: The True Story of the Worst Sea Disaster in U.S. Naval History and the Fifty-Year Fight to Exonerate an Innocent Man Cover Image
$20.00
ISBN: 9781501135958
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Simon & Schuster - May 21st, 2019

It is impossible for me to remember reading a book of this size (592 pages) that was such a binding adventure. It tells the story of the USS Indianapolis as the ship that took the uranium from the U.S. to Tinian Island, where the air force assembled the nuclear weapon that was used on Hiroshima, her torpedoing and sinking on the way back, and the court martial (and exoneration) of her captain, James McVay.

At times, the book reads like the World War II adventure story it is: simple, passionate, horrific. But at other times, because of the incredible amount of detail, it takes on a deeper quality. The many years it took the authors to create this book become evident when the reader grasps the astounding completeness of their work.

The authors are impressively credentialed. Lynn Vincent is a Navy veteran, a best-selling author and a journalist whose investigative work has been cited before Congress and the Supreme Court. Sara Vladic is an award-winning documentary filmmaker, a leading expert on the USS Indianapolis, and has published new research on the ship in Proceedings, the official journal of the U.S. Navy. Together they produced an extremely well-researched work, full of complexity developed largely from primary source material, and which took more than fifteen years to create.

When the Indy was sunk, the men who initially survived were in the Pacific Ocean and subject to frequent shark attacks. For four days and five nights they struggled with little food and water and insufficient life rafts. Some went insane from drinking sea water. Some fought each other.Their lives became an unmentionable hell. And when they were eventually discovered, it was by accident. Of 1,195 crewmen on board, approximately 300 died when the ship went down. Of those remaining only 316 eventually survived.

They had sailed without an escort and none was entrusted with following them. Admirals and other officers displayed a greater lack of diligence to duty than did Captain McVay, yet he was court martialed, a unique occurrence for a skipper.

Compared to the number of people who know that Japan was attacked with atomic weapons, few are aware of the story of the Indianapolis and her captain. For this, the Navy must take responsibility. The Navy prevented release of information about the sinking until news that the war had ended was released, even though reporters would have been able to report the loss. Simply put, the Navy wanted this horribly tragic story to be buried in the glee of ending the war, and it also failed to assign responsibility to those who may have prevented the tragedy of so much horrific loss of life. 

Bill Toti, commander of the U. S. submarine Indianapolis became an advocate of redefining the historical record regarding Mcvay, and his role is described along with the actions of an eleven year old boy named Hunter Scott. Hunter made a school history project from the story of the Indiannapolis, and he became a major player in McVay’s exoneration.

The authors included chapters describing what it meant to them to create this work-their challenges, experiences, events and memories of the survivors whom they grew to know.

This is a story that needs to be told because it is an important one whose telling somehow never really occurred. It is no less a part of history because it was delayed. It is no sideshow. This story is one of the America from which our America grew and it is one whose players and whose details must never be forgotten.Clearly, this book receives a strong recommendation for those who appreciate thorough and well-written history.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books Toys & Gifts Bookstore


And the Whole Mountain Burned: A War Novel Cover Image
$28.60
ISBN: 9781546081913
Availability: Backordered - Not In Stock
Published: Center Street - November 6th, 2018

Author Ray McPadden was a commander of an elite Ranger unit in Afghanistan. He was also in Iraq and worked with Navy Seals. He had four combat tours and received a purple heart, two bronze stars, and a medal of valor. Contemplating his history,  I’m a little uncomfortable calling the work  “fiction.” I suppose it is, but I don’t know how it could be much closer to the truth.  

This is a war story set in Afghanistan that begins in 2002 and then jumps ahead to 2008. It starts with a scene where a Sgt. Nick Burch is attempting to buy some fried potatoes from a boy named Habibullah when he is attacked by the Taliban. After a fierce exchange of fire, the attack ends. Sgt. Burch assumes that the boy has been killed but soon discovers that, no, he is simply on the other side of the house, cooking the potatoes, which he presents to Sgt. Burch! 

Habibullah has larger roles later in the story, as does a Pvt. Danny Shane, a “cherry” whose military development in the Kush is influenced by his Sergeant, Nick Burch. 

Danny arrives to Sgt. Burch’s platoon in 2008, and their chief mission is to search for an elusive insurgent nicknamed “the Egyptian.” As time progresses, Danny changes into a much more hardened soldier who remains loyal to his sergeant.  But Sgt. Burch has spent much time in combat, perhaps too much. His reasoning fragments from the stresses of battle and it affects his judgement, eventually in profound fashion. 

And The Whole Mountain Burned describes life in a combat unit in the ‘Stan. It is a blistering, rough tale of what that experience was for our soldiers who made the journey. It also gives a picture of the character of the Afghan people, as seen through the eyes of a soldier. If you like modern military adventures, this one is for you.

There are various fascinating military endeavors and battle scenes within the story, but for me, the truly frightening parts involved the episodes when Sgt. Burch’s grasp of reality disappears-he fantasizes a burning zeppelin that crashes during a firefight, he dances with a cobra, he thinks the mujahadeen can shape-shift, he even once proposes to eat the enemy-these events stem from macabre hallucinations born of prolonged terror. It made me realize that a soldier may need to keep separate the insanity (in war) from the insanity (caused by war), so as not to be overcome by either.

I wanted to know more about how the dangers and resulting effects of battle were observed and experienced, and how they connected to his writing process. I am very pleased that the author contributed his answers to some of my questions.They follow:  

32nd Avenue Books: How have your experiences in combat changed your outlook on life?

Ray McPadden: Many young men and women want to go war. It's a way to prove what they are made of, their self-worth. It's the ultimate game for measuring oneself. So with war in my rearview mirror, I think I'm a calmer person. I quenched the "thirst" to find out what I'm made of. I am satisfied. I like who I am. 

32nd Avenue Books: Can you describe how your memories of combat and your imagination combined to form the story in your book?

Ray McPadden: I started writing a memoir. Real experiences and memories just poured out of me. I let it all flow, and it was all about me. That made me uncomfortable. Plus, many of my powerful memories, like firefights, were isolated events with no larger implications or narrative. I decided to fictionalize my memories. It was a break-through moment that freed my imagination. Fiction gave me a chance to re-order stories, create different angles, and combine real people. Many characters in the book are combinations of 2-3 real people. I began to package real stories together in ways that created a better narrative arc. The book took form. 

32nd Avenue Books: What can you say about the effects of extreme battle stress on elite cadre?

Ray McPadden: Battle stress brings out viciousness and anger. Both are good qualities on the battlefield, but not so much in the normal world. Being hyper-alert and neck-deep in violence on a regular basis takes its toll. The longer it goes on, the more your sense of reality and your morals are challenged. One of the main characters in the book, Burch, is a symbol of this struggle. 

32nd Avenue Books: What has been your personal experience with battle stress?

Ray McPadden: I dealt with it mostly on my first tour in Afghanistan. It was a 15-month deployment in Afghanistan's Korengal Valley. We were constantly fighting in savage terrain. There was no rest, no safe area. It was a far different situation from say, the Battle of Fallujah in Iraq, where US forces geared up, engaged in a bloody battle to retake a city, and won within a couple weeks. During my first tour in Afghanistan, battle stress brought out selfishness. I tried extremely hard to keep it from clouding my judgement. You have to think of mission, and people. Self is the wrong answer as a combat leader. 

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books Toys & Gifts Bookstore


Imaginary Friend Cover Image
$16.99
ISBN: 9781538731352
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Grand Central Publishing - October 6th, 2020

A woman has a small boy. Her husband goes crazy and commits suicide. She has a relationship with another man who turns out to be abusive, and she leaves him. She travels to a different state and tries to make a new life for herself and her son. The boy disappears for six days and, when he returns, he has changed. This is a skeleton storyline of the work.  And although the storyline is useful as a sort of anchor that keeps the reader connected, it hardly describes the nature of this intriguing work of horror. 

At first, the reader may think that the boy is consumed by a bizarre, frightening, and overwhelming psychosis; hallucinatory and detached beyond repair. However, it is soon clear that the boy is in some metaphysical realm and participating in a nascent battle of good and evil, where his mother and others also become participants.

The nice man, the hissing lady, aggressive deer with sharp teeth, magical and damned tree houses, mailbox people with mouths sewn shut and eyes zippered closed, streets of blood—and many other images and events straight from Hell—make Imaginary Friend an amusement park of horror unlike any other you may have visited. With occasional and extremely novel religious undertones, the love of goodness and hope remain constants in the boy and his mother.

For me, reading Imaginary Friend was an experience often uncomfortable, regularly disturbing, occasionally frightening, yet perpetually engrossing and deserving of admiration. Obviously, recommended for fans of horror. You will find it unique.

 

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys and Gifts Bookstore


Eleanor Oliphant Is Completely Fine: A Novel Cover Image
$16.00
ISBN: 9780735220690
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Penguin Books - June 5th, 2018

This is a story of a young woman, Eleanor Oliphant, who is educated and well-spoken, yet odd, reticent, and quite awkward socially. She works in an accounts receivable job, and has very limited activities outside of work, which amount to little more than eating frozen pizza and drinking vodka on the weekends.   

One day, she and a co-worker witness a man stumble and fall in the street. They get help for the man and eventually befriend him and his family. She also obsessively fantasizes about a local rock musician, and her dreams become a belief that she and the musician will share a future. She has macabre conversations with her mother every week who, frankly, seems quite evil.

As the story progresses, she attends a concert of the musician she has become infatuated with. There, she discovers that he not only does he not notice her, but is undeserving of her respect or admiration. At this, her level of depression plummets and she contemplates suicide. Her friend and co-worker intervenes, and with the help of some therapy, gradually brings her out of her defective condition. As her problems unravel, their sad, true nature is revealed. 

Eleanor Oliphant is Completely Fine is a panorama of the isolation, introversion and anxiety that surround loneliness. Thankfully, it is also a story of compassion and emergence.

What was most surprising to me was how this debut author used her writing skill to create a character with an excellent command of English but unable to make her words  sound other than contrived, klutzy and inappropriate. Eleanor was not at all completely fine, but by the end of the book, she is taking small, careful steps on a much healthier path.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books, Toys & Gifts  Bookstore


Atlas of a Lost World: Travels in Ice Age America Cover Image
$17.00
ISBN: 9780345806314
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Vintage - April 9th, 2019

Craig Childs is a nature and science writer who has published several other books including Apocalyptic Planet, Finders Keepers, and Animal Dialogues. Atlas of a Lost World is his latest. He has also written for various publications and teaches writing at the University of Alaska and the Southern New Hampshire University.

This work examines the questions of when did people first arrive in the Americas, how do we know, and why did they come. Evidence seems to suggest that people first began arriving about 20,000 years ago but there is not uniform agreement on this. Radiocarbon dating and the discovery and analysis of paleolithic artifacts and fossils are the main ways that we can know the approximate date of arrival. However, there have been discoveries of other objects, such as stone points or a piece of a bone in much older strata that throw doubt on the date. Speculations as to why people came include consideration of genetic drivers, such as a rover allele or a dopamine receptor that will cause certain individuals to forage more or engage in risky behavior; climate changes, and even space-related drivers.

The author traces human evolution from Africa. Animal bones having been cut with stone about two million years ago, possibly by Homo Erectus, were discovered in Kenya. 100,000 to 70,000 years ago humans left Africa at Djibouti and entered the Middle East at the bottom of Saudi Arabia. About 48,000 years ago humans entered Sahul, the contiguous landmass of Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea, and there is evidence of humans butchering Mammoths in Siberia at 45,000 years. One theory has humans crossing a land bridge at the Bering Strait before it was submerged due to ice melt. They would have followed mountains or nunataks protruding from the ice. Another has them traveling down the Pacific coast in boats made of skins, following the Kelp Highway, a maritime ecosystem surrounding kelp and proceeding inland along rivers.

Craig Childs has travelled extensively-Alaska, Chile, Florida, New Mexico- to research various paleolithic sites. He has even spent time on the Harding Icefield to experience what the Ice Age Pleistoscene may have been like. Whether he is in a desert or a jungle, his imagination launches him to the period when the artifacts and fossils were in use or had life. The way he allows his study to transport him to that time draws me into his work. He can examine a prehistoric camel skull and, a moment later, there he is in the Pleistoscene watching for dire wolves and sabertooth cats, observing the landscape, smelling the moisture in the air, feeling the wind. When visiting Paisley, Oregon and reflecting on the Paisley Caves site as it existed 14,000 to 16,000 years ago, 6,000 years after the last glacial maximum, he writes: “Clouds streamed off the Cascades. Dabs of sleet pegged the ground, hitting my shoulders, nicking my cheeks. For time travel, stormy weather is best. The dry West can be nothing but sunny, everything cut into slices of shadow and light. On a day like this, sunlight turns into color and shape as shadows richen. Ghosts stir from the ground, silver-tipped rain on sage.”

This work was pleasurable and stimulating. Definitely recommended for those who enjoy nature and scientific adventures.

Steve Brehm

32nd Avenue Books Toys & Gifts Bookstore


Small Fry: A Memoir Cover Image
$17.00
ISBN: 9780802147219
Availability: Usually Ships in 1-5 Days
Published: Grove Press - June 18th, 2019

“Small Fry” was the nickname Steve Jobs called his daughter, Lisa. It is also the title of her autobiography. This book is a coming of age story, brutal in its innocence and complex in human emotions and values.

Author Lisa Brennan-Jobs endured the struggles on growing up with a genius, her feared and famous father and a sensible but confused single mom, Chrisann, to become an independent young woman that created her own path in life.

She survived the apparent immaturity of her parents and the distance and volatility of her father while experiencing an enormous desire to be accepted and approved by his family. Lisa managed to overcome the toughness of her early life to create her own triumphant future.

 

32nd Avenue Books Toys & Gifts Bookstore